|| Jan 2012
Interpretation of the Bible era of Old Qmus Tadros Jacob Malaty
Introduction to the Pentateuch 2- Moses and travel
introduction, moses, pentateuch, travel
Musa travel writer:
Circa 1167 AD borrowed consider son Ezra Ibn Ezra lyrics Revelation: "And the Canaanite was then in the earth" (Genesis 12: 6). Writer was speaking after leaving the Canaanites of the land, which has not been achieved in the days of Moses, making him call out that the author of these books other than Moses. Came centuries of the seventeenth to the twentieth charged sophisticated monetary studies to examine how Moses relationship Prophet such travel, that was during the oral or written tradition, which he took, or perhaps record observations on the laws that received and that someone else relied on his memoirs to put these books. And also if there is a source other than what Moses delivered verbally or in writing to write these books ... things that I do not want the prolongation. Especially has a new trend emerged with the start of the twentieth century among scholars and critics back to confirm the traditional historical thought that the author of these books is the prophet Moses, but we have preferred before the review of the evolution of these studies to record evidence and testimony that Moses is the author of these books inspired by the Holy Spirit.
I. testimony of the Old Testament:
Student of the Pentateuch can be aware of the existence of three bodies of law should be the prophet Moses himself is recorded, namely:
A. Book of the covenant (Exodus 20:22 - Exodus 23), the ten commandments, which represents the cornerstone of the law (Exodus 20: 1-17; 24: 1-12; 31: 12-18; 34: 17-28). According to the Book of Exodus: "And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord" (Exodus 24: 4).
B. Canons own tent meeting and service (Khr25-31; 35-40), has been traveling the same affirmed that the Lord declared these laws in all its details mentioned to Moses (Exodus 25: 1).
C. Travel opened Deuteronomy speech to Moses face the new generation before they enter the land of Canaan, Includes a historical summary of the God who led them through it, repeating the parts of the law. According to this book, "Moses wrote the Torah and delivered it to the priests, the sons of Levi, the ark of the covenant of the Lord and the holders of all the elders of Israel" (Deuteronomy 31: 9.24 to 26).
The five books were witnessing that Moses is the author of these three main objects of the law, the whole of the Old Testament testifies that Moses is the author of these books, we recall some of the statements contained therein:
"The Joshua Ben Aossadq priests and brothers ... and built the altar of the God of Israel to bring up attic offerings as it is written in the law of Moses the man of God" (Ezra 3: 2).
"They set up the priests in their divisions, and the Levites in their courses, for the service of God which is in Jerusalem, as it is written in the book of Moses" (Ezra 6:18).
"And all the people gathered as one man ... and said to Ezra the scribe to come Book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD commanded Israel" (towards 8: 1).
"That day has been read in the book of Moses in the ears of the people" (towards 13: 1).
"As he wrote in the law of Moses may we came all this evil" (Da 9:13).
Old Testament concludes with the following words: "Remember the law of Moses, which ordered him in Horeb for Israel statutes and judgments" (Mullah 4: 4).
Second testimony of the New Testament:
A. Jesus quote from the five books attributed to Moses phrases, so what came in the Bible: "Jesus said to them: See no less of one, but go, shew thyself to the priest and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony to them" (Matthew 4: 8, see no 14: 4.10). Compare also (Matthew 19: 8, Mk 10: 5 with Deuteronomy 24: 1; over 7:10 with Exodus 20:12; 21:17; over 12:26, though 20:37 with Exodus 3: 6).
B. In an interview with Jesus Christ for the law attributed to Moses, and this is seen in the custody of the Jews . If that Jesus knows they are wrong to correct concepts, or at least when it does not excerpted he attributes to Moses. Christ is the right shall be (John 14: 6), who came to witness the right (Jn 8:37), it does not accept the error and ratified.
C. Men of the New Testament testimony: they saw in the reading of the law is read in Moses (Acts 15:21; 2 Cor. 3:15, see also Rowe 10: 5.19; 1 Cor. 9:19).
We believe that divine revelation sanctifies human thought and human culture, it does not dictate to the author Travel certain as written words, but inflames his heart to write and speak the tags and walled it so not to make mistakes, leaving him to write during his own culture, the simple human writes Kaaamos Prophet language simplicity, writes the Apostle Paul thought philosophical and spiritual ... here as the Spirit of God uses the prophet Moses note in his style references to Moses as a man who grew up in Egypt and learn the wisdom of the Egyptians. The writer appears as someone who has a thorough knowledge of Egypt, which can not be achieved with other than Moses, who lived in Canaan after coming out of the horns. This is noted by many scholars in detail, Nodzh in the following points:
1. came five include many of the words of the Egyptian travel, so the name you gave Pharaoh to Joseph: "Zaphnath Finih" (Genesis 41: 45), an Egyptian name fits Yusuf, who concluded Egypt from famine, meaning (God speaks and lives ) (or newly born live ), and the wife said Yusuf name "Asenath" (Genesis 41: 45), an Egyptian name means (belonging to the goddess Neith Neith ). He said the name of the city of Heliopolis where she was the center of worship of the sun god old "On the Egyptian name" (Genesis 41: 45.50; 46: 20). He also mentioned the Egyptian name for the city of Rameses (Genesis 47: 11; Exodus 1:11; 12:37; Count 33: 3.5), and also Pithom Pi-Tum name referred to in the effects of the family of 19, which is entirely consistent with the exit. The title of Joseph Cup, which placed him in the mouth of Benjamin's name for the Egyptian Cup divine "Tasy," the expression that has not been used in five books, but not in (Jeremiah 35: 5), Jeremiah was found in Egypt. There are many other words Egyptian, Egyptian or Hebraic any tinge carried Hebraic.
2. Egyptian beside us these words recorded some of the Egyptian travel habits minute that known only to those who lived in Egypt at the time, which is usually the eunuchs that marriage did not mention it at all only in the Old Testament (Genesis 37: 36; 39: 1). Perhaps the word "eunuch" here refers to the owner of a major function at the Pharaoh (Genesis 40: 20), which is usually not known in Israel, but it occurred once in the late time with King Herod (Matthew 14: 6; Over 6:21). Also usually provide the ring and put a gold in the neck of those who wish to honor him in power (Genesis 41: 42) did not know in Israel, but is found in Egypt, Persia and Babylon (Isaiah 3:10, 12; 8.10; Da 5:29). Joseph's brothers also isolated from Joseph and the Egyptians on the table (Genesis 43: 32) with illustrative phrase that the Egyptians do not eat bread with the Hebrews it is an abomination to the Egyptians. Note also provide that every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians (Genesis 46: 34). The writer explained that familiar with the land of the priests in Egypt (Genesis 47: 22).
3. From the geographical point of the writer knows the Nile River Beach attributes also known wild sand (Exodus 2:12), and Egyptian papyrus (Exodus 3: 2), and the location of Rameses and Scott (Exodus 2:37) and Ethem (Exodus 13:20) mouth Alehirot (Exodus 14: 2). And shows his awareness of the geography of saying: "They may Astglq wilderness" (Exodus 24: 3).
Many scholars believe that the laws Ballaoyen (Khr20-23; 25-31; 35-40; count 5; 6; 8-10; 15-19) and contained in Leviticus ... carrying signs indicate that they are placed in the days of Moses and not in the era of late with him. It is the evidence that Rawlinson on it is :
1. see  Prof. Main that these laws primitive fit the era of Moses came as a mix between religious canons of civil and behavioral and other economic.
2. mingled laws Paljnb historical fiction which indicates that it was written during a curfew in the wild.
3. Some of these laws came suit nomadic tent dwellers.
4. notes in these laws to avoid talking about the sun honor manner as in worship (Psalm 19: 4), which indicates that the writer feared lest they fall into the cult of the sun, such as the Egyptians ...
Some scholars believe that the Book of Deuteronomy carries within it a testament to that topic in the prophet Moses, and not, as some have claimed that during the reign of King Josiah or Manasseh, that his handling of the expulsion of the Canaanites of the cities of the country as it was suitable for the days of Moses are not days of the Kings (Deuteronomy 20:10 -20).
Evolution Studies in the five books of Moses:
We said that Ibn Ezra in the twelfth century Note (Genesis 12: 6) that the author is talking about traveling to expel the Canaanites a past event, as if the writer came after Moses.
In the seventeenth century, said Richard Simon (1685) that the five books of Moses have used observations and memoirs but inserter added to some of the resources. Philosopher Thomas Hobbes believed that these books with the books of Kings put Ezra.
Below is a quick summary of the evolution of the five travel-specific studies:
1. theory of ancient sources: The Old Documents Hypothesis
A summary of this theory that Moses used previous documents, marked as a document mentioning the name of God the title is different from other documents. He noticed H.B. Witter (1711) that Majesty's name in these books sometimes writes Elohim Elohim and other Jehovah Jehovah's this creature was reported twice in Genesis (1-3: 24), leading him to believe the existence of exporters former used them Moses, representing the tradition received by Moses, verbally or in writing. French physician Jean Astruc was taken (in 1753) with the same theory through independent study for Witter, said that Moses obtained his information from a source Olohima Elohistic (which uses the word Elohim) and another uses the name Jehovah Yahwistic, this next ten other sources provided small excerpts, branches in the four rivers, Finally back of Genesis.
Taking also J.G. Eichorn theory of the existence of former exporters to Moses, in his book Introl to the OT (1780-1783), while K.D. Ilgen (1798 m) cried the existence of three previous sources, one of the sources used the term "Jehovah" and the other two sources used the term "Elohim."
2. Theory sources Incomplete: The Fragment Hypothesis
The previous theory may have, in essence, the presence of two or three used by the prophet Moses in the development of these journeys, the theory or point of view represented by Vater (1805 m) and Hartman (1831 m) is ****d on the use of incomplete sources (Group Misc) of about thirty or more, each independent of the other, but this theory did not find a response from the students.
3. Theory SURGEON: The Supplementary Hypothesis
****d on the presence of several documents subsequent to the prophet Moses, the author of such books complemented them with each other. This theory suggested H.G. Ewald (1831 m), followed by Bleek (1836 m), then adopted J.CF Tuch (1938 m) in his comments on the book of Genesis, and also F. Delitzsch (1852 m). I think that there Ewald source Olohima late era Moses added to the oldest parts of it, such as the Ten Commandments and the book of the covenant. And grabbed another this production adds to the parts of the document Yahwistic used the term "Jehovah". With that Ewald is the founder of this theory, but arrived to demolish himself, calling in writing History of Israel (1843- 1855) the existence of two rivers: Olohima and Yahwistic.
4. theory of modern documents:
Feet H. Hupfeld (1853 m), a new trend in studies of five travel-during his study of the Book of Genesis, which stated that the documents which is late for the era of Moses is not complementary to each other but they represent three rivers anecdotal full: Olohimah origin, Olohimah late, and Jewish, and then the fourth hand of revised linking these documents together.
In 1805, club Wette existence of another document private Balttnah discovered around the year 621 BC, and it is placed before it shortly. In 1854 E. Club Reuss existence of a fourth document he called the document priestly Priestly Document, has been given the symbols of these documents are:
E Alolohimah Elohist J Jewish Yahwistic
D private Balttnah Deuteronomy P priestly Priestly
The Graft publish this theory in 166, and he defended A. Kuenen (1869-1870), and later gave J. Welhausen (1878 m) classic expressions in writing History Of Israel I, was known theory on behalf of Graft. Welhausen or Welhausen alone, introduced by some of the amendments.
5. traditional cash - historical: The Tradits - Historical Criticism
With the beginning of the twentieth century appeared a strong trend of the need to return to the authentic traditional thought: that the writer is Moses himself, though some few words have been added, such as story after his death.
This theory was founded in the Scandinavian School in Uppsala represented 1. Engell in 1945 that the club that it is wrong to look to the existence of parallel documents together when put these books, especially as it is not the impact of these documents.
Respond to the objections of critics:
The previous studies were referred to are ****d purely on my mind a far cry from the side of faith and the concept of divine revelation, as I quickly made her an offer oldest arguments objecting to the fact that Moses is the author of the books mentioned by the students.
The first objection:
We saw that the main factor for the emergence of these theories is the name Majesty said many titles, especially titles "Elohim and Jehovah" making the critics are calling for the existence of more than one source for these books.
If the writer just revised to more than one source, it was not difficult for him to use another revision in the title of God, and I gave him another title shall not be frequently not in the same position. In the story of creation (Genesis 1: 1; 2: 4) Bolohim nicknamed God, and in the sequel story (Genesis 2: 4-25) uses the title of Jehovah. Thus, also in the story of the Flood (Genesis 6: 5; 9:19) is sometimes used and sometimes Jehovah Elohim ... which confirms that the revelation of God wanted to offer to the faithful in more than a title to announce them about his work with the human. Sometimes they used the title: "Elohim," a collection of the word "God" to confirm triangulation human prepares for work of salvation as the Father sends the Son ransom us and the Holy Spirit, the company between us and God ... and others call him: "Jehovah," declaring that he, above all perceptions , the third: "Amshadaa" being the Pantocrator interested in all the large and small in given by life, and a fourth: "Alaelln" El Elyon any Ali to take away the hearts of believers to the highest, and V. "Alawlam" El Olam any eternal order stems us to what is above time Venctha that we find him in Alabdiat ... in the shortcut titles that God is not evidence of a different documents for travel, but purpose of the Declaration of the mystery of God and characteristics that affect our faith and interact with our lives and our concepts and our behavior.
The second objection:
Some scholars objected, saying that Moses was practically a leader and not a writer .
If we have learned about the work of Moses leading through the Bible, the book offered by us also as a writer , it was not there in his reign and after him who is better able than on writing, used by the Holy Spirit to bring the word of God live through the history of that period of time mixed divine Sharia.
Firstly: if Moses had learned the wisdom of the Egyptians (Exodus 2:10, Acts 7:21), which includes writing, the God who sanctifies human talent gave him what is the greatest of the Egyptian wisdom ... fill of divine wisdom, shone us these Scriptures Inspired by the Holy Spirit of God works through the generations.
Second, delivered Moses information for creation tradition which can be handed from Adam the first man until the last he saw of his grandchildren, and the latter gave what he heard with his own ears from Adam to another grandson had lived during, and so Moses is the fifth person who received the tradition, citing for Adam. Some scholars believe that Joseph since he came to Egypt and came after him and his father deposited in the closet Pharaoh what he took from his fathers, which Moses received from the palace.
Third, carried the five books the Ten Commandments and the things that the law of Moses receiving the same, as the minutes record events go out and wild things that no one knows the details like him.
Fourth: The Prophet Moses lived about forty years in the wilderness, and with the leadership of concern as he heard DIET advice Jethro (Exodus 18: 13-26) distributed micro issues at the elders of the people and the time is the big things, which gave him the opportunity and time to write.
Fifth: the sponsorship of sheep about 40 years earned him vital in contemplation of God's love and measures, which roused himself to writing after that, it was in humility announced that he is not the owner of the words (Exodus 4:10), but the right has become a sacred tool alive in the hands of God to work leadership neighborhood fused sacred writing.
The third objection:
Some Ali objected proportion of these books to Moses, the prophet of what appeared in the books of the era of Joshua until the captivity if the special law Ballaoyen were not present, relying on some of the phrases that the most important: "Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel been incorporated burnt offerings to your sacrifices, and eat meat, because I did not speak to fathers do not I commanded day I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt offering or sacrifice, but rather I commanded this matter, saying: Hear my voice and I will be your God, and you shall be my people, and walk in the way which I command you do to improve to you "(Jeremiah 7: 21-23 see Amos 5: 21-25; May 6: 6-8; Isaiah 1: 11-15). Critics says that if Moses had written five books that canons of whale carcasses and rituals said to Jeremiah and other prophets such a phrase.
Do not understand the words of the prophet Jeremiah and others that they were ignorant of the ritual sacrifices, and do not write Leviticus ... these phrases do not understand the literal way fatal, but interpreted thus:
First: mixing between Jews offer sacrifices to God and idols, they thought they were dissatisfied with God offering sacrifices to him at a time when the offer pagan sacrifices to satisfy their cravings, so it was said: "sacrificed to idols is not of God" (Deuteronomy 32: 17). According to Ezekiel that the Jews practiced idolatry Bergasadtha along with Jewish weather only God worship him teasing him and died glory of his home and his city (Ezekiel 10: 18.19; 11:32, 33). God does not cheat nor sacrifices Erech Ptkdmat of unclean hands is determined to evil ... to announce that he did not ask for sacrifices, nor in need of advances.
Second: the silence of the prophets from the ritual aspects contained in Leviticus does not mean lack of knowledge of travel for not writing it yet, but because the bounce in their time not for violation of religious ritual, but rebound in the behavior of this aspect of behavioral cared practical.
Third, what sacrifices were just a symbol of the sacrifice of the Messiah, the God counts himself as one who did not recommend them as long as they have deviated from the purpose and become the pro forma exercise to satisfy the conscience without longing for reconciliation.
Fourth, the critics have proclaimed that the prophets knew Deuteronomy Aguetpsoa him without Leviticus, the book of Deuteronomy but it is a reminder of the law actually list contained in Leviticus. This and that the prophet Amos has also referred to the Levites (Amos 4: 4.5; 5:21).
The fourth objection
Some critics have used geographic connotations think it confirms that these books and put in a later era to Moses, so to say: "beyond the Jordan" (Deuteronomy 1: 1.5; 3: 8; 41-49). The writer speaks in the West Bank to talk about the other side (East), where Moses was a resident. But he says: J. Raven that this expression can be used in the east of the Jordan, or in Weird alike, giving examples of this: (Deuteronomy 3:20, 25th; Joshua 1: 9; Count 22: 1; 32: 32; Tech 50: 10.11).
From other geographical indications that the Pentateuch remember the city, "Dan" instead of "Laish" (Genesis 14:14; Deuteronomy 34: 1), with that of Laish not bear this name only after the victory of Dan them after the age of Moses. Raven answers that he does not have to be contained in Dan (Genesis 14:14) is Laish, but is likely to be another city bearing the name Dan. As stated in (Deuteronomy 34: 1) We know that the last chapter of Deuteronomy was written after the death of Moses.
And also the region which was named "pertained the towns of Jair, to this day" (Deuteronomy 3:14), indicate that the author of this book, after the prophet Moses, so I gave this name late (count 32: 41; Joshua 13: 3; Judges 10: 4). But Raven answers that this name means (the villages of Jair) (Numbers 32: 4), and refers to the designation Yair some villages in Gilead to his name, was made of it in Bashan (Deuteronomy 3:14), this and that Jair mentioned in the Pentateuch not Yair necessarily mentioned in the Book of judges means.
Joseph also say: "Because I had been stolen from the land of the Hebrews" (Genesis 40: 15) ... with the Hebrews did not yet have owned the land, not even in the days of Moses. And respond to it that the word "Hebrews" was referring to those who are unstable in their land, were invited Ibrahim as "transient" (Genesis 14:13), has been known as the owner of Sultan (Genesis 23: 6) and also of Isaac (Genesis 26: 13 ) and Jacob (Genesis 34), earth where these patriarchs lived nearly three centuries probably bore the name of "the land of the Hebrews", and perhaps for the same reason, we find a woman Potiphar let Joseph in more than one place Abrania (Genesis 39: 14.17).
Use some semantic own ancient antiquities Archeological rejection ratios in these books of Moses that what came in (Exodus 16:36), "The age is ten ephah" claiming that it is not known archaeological point of age in the era of Moses. Respond to it that ephah word derived from the Egyptian, and it was easy to exit the Hebrews from Egypt to know ephah, so interpreted the old book known to Moses and his contemporaries Pallaifah.
As well as the term "NIS Jerusalem" (Exodus 30: 13; 38: 24-26) assumed that the temple was built and rituals have been used for a long time . Respond to it that this expression was new at the time the evidence outlined three times (Exodus 30: 13; 27 No: 25; count 3:47) and that he had not yet used.
Moses, the prophet speaks about the origin of Og king of Bashan and iron bed (Deuteronomy 3:11) to his hearers with someone who did not know that the listeners in the days of Moses, King overwhelmed and killed him . Explains why them? Respond to it that Moses Olney writes to the general public who do not know about Og these things even though they may Gelboh, he writes the following generations.
Introduction to the Pentateuch 2- Moses and travel
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