|| Jan 2012
Interpretation of the Bible in a new era of Qmus Tadros Jacob Malaty
Second, the problem Gospels (Alsenobtah) Synoptic Problem
(alsenobtah), gospels, problem, second, synoptic
I do not want to go into this issue that was Tashha Church of the East in general, but preoccupied the minds of Bible students in the West since the mid-eighteenth century, especially with the start of the twentieth century.
Synoptic word derived from the Greek word which means Sunarao seeing all together complementary perspective, they belong to three gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke being the Gospels contain a structure similar materials are similar, although also found materials is similar. The problem is how it happened this similarity? Are the Gospels relied on each other, or return to a primitive one source, whether verbally or in writing Kaltkulaid, or more than one source?
The first to use this expression is Griesbach in the eighteenth century, and invited three gospels: Synoptic Gospel Some Bibles translated or similar or complementary Gospels, also known as the three evangelists b Synopists.
Before we get into the problem we would like to ask: Why assess comparisons between the Gospels and ask about the source as long as it was written divine revelation through the Holy Spirit?
Here we would like to make clear the difference between the eastern thought and Western thought in the study of the Bible, the Middle general, especially the Orthodox Church tends to patristic first direction, a preoccupation with the word of God or divine revelation being the acceptance of Christ himself personally alive we live and where and with him heading our thoughts to the eternal inheritance , absorbing inner mind heavenly Balofot more than theoretical critical studies. The bulk of the West has poured especially in the nineteenth and twentieth towards monetary scientific studies and research interest in the Bible, which we can make use of it so much in our edification and spiritual understanding of the word of God that we have accepted spiritually.
Before entering into the details of this problem, we need first to learn about the concept of the Christian Church for divine inspiration, to know what is a man of God who revealed to him by the Holy Spirit to write the role ?! It says in the Bible: "All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, so that the man of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work" (2 Timothy 3: 16-17); "Knowing this first, that no prophecy the book is of any private interpretation, for that prophecy never came by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit "(2 Peter 1: 20-21). So the whole book inspired by the Holy Spirit, and the writers are God's family, or, as the Psalmist says, "my tongue pen writer Maher" (Psalm 45: 1).
By every writer like in the hands of the Holy Spirit, but Maher pen, do not write only to the dictates of the Spirit without him lose his personality and abilities and his skill and his environment. This is strange in the love of God, even as it offers us His written Word human does not use rigid machine-driven mechanically rigid, but deal with us through "mutual love" and appreciation for God's wonderful human creature. If we pour his love and gives us his divine immortal, but he does not despise our love and our thinking and our culture and our language. It gives the word and keep it gives the writer the ability to write in the infallibility of error without disregard for humanity. This is no wonder that the book contained Testaments different Isfara written in a different way through different cultures spanned thousands of years, however, remained the book remains alive, carries us the divine word that no aging. This prompted Western scholars to critical and analytical study of the Bible. As we accept these studies Fbthfez aware of what St. Aarinaas The book even in parts mysterious "spiritual whole." , and the parents said that the infallible book is wrong and there is no thing plus useless, even Origen said: [It is not a single character or address written in the Bible does not complement his own business for able to use .] in the same way St. Jerome says: [in divine books every word and clip and marker and point Tlthv sense .] according to St. John Chrysostom even lists of names contained in the the book has a deep meaning , has been devoted to explain Aztin regards contained in chapter XVI of the letter to the Romans to announce that the treasures of wisdom hidden in every word uttered by the Spirit .
After set the foundation for our understanding of the divine inspiration come back to the problem of the three Synoptic Gospels Synoptic to explain the existence of similarities between them and also dissimilar materials:
A. Similarities 
Similar to the first three Gospels in many materials as in the order, on the one hand similar materials received similar phrases in three Gospels can be termed tradition Almtluth three traditions, and phrases contained in Angeline just call it tradition Almtnah twofold traditions, and the phrases did not respond only in the Gospel of one call it unique traditions unique traditions, and even the same phrases repeated in the Bible called thermocouples doublets.
This notes that St. Mark's Gospel Gospels more concise and it received most of its articles in Matthew or Luke or both together. Although it is difficult to statistically accurate work of isomers, because some of the language contained in the other Gospels recorded in the largest number of verses.
Matthew Mark Luke
Total phrases 1070 677 1150
Traditions unique 330 70 520
About ten third half
Traditions Almtnah 170-180 170-180230
(Matthew - if) (Mr- if) (Lo- when)
(Matthew - if) (Mr- if) (Lo- DIED)
Traditions Almtluth 350-370 350-370 350-370
This is the number of similar materials As for the similarities in the standings, three gospels has carried a one-year framework or outline similar, so it came:
A. Preparation for the service.
B. Mr. Jalil in service.
C. His journey to Jerusalem.
D. Passion and Resurrection.
Similarities did not stop at material and the general framework in the standings, but the Gospels included some quotations from the Old Testament sometimes modified. Has received the same amendment in the three Gospels, also used comparisons Greek rare and sometimes come to terms matching each other word for word in the three Gospels. This is what called to ask about the secret of this similarity?
On the one hand materials mention the differences in the three Gospels, for example:
1. wrote the birth of Jesus Christ in the Gospel of Matthew in a manner different from that stated in the Gospel of Luke, the Gospel of Mark did not mention him at all.
2. ratios as reported in the Gospel of Matthew (1: 1-17) differs from those in the Gospel of Luke (3: 23-38).
3. The three trials faced by Mr. mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew (4: 3-12) In the Gospel of Luke (4: 3-12), with the difference in the standings.
4. Resurrection events contained in each Gospel differentiated manner, Vmwalimna when talked about Mr. apparitions in the Galilee, but our teacher Luke talked about Zaurath in Judaism.
5. received Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew (5-7) did not respond in the Gospel of Mark.
Solutions to the problem
In the first parents of all ages interested in an event individually, explaining evangelical agreement, but what happened in the West, is to study the problem as a whole, several theories have emerged to solve are not contradictory, but all of which paves the other, the most important:
1. theory use Utilization Theory: is that all depends on the former Gospel Gospel or former Alangelin him, which employs what has preceded. Perhaps this theory relied on what was in St. Augustine that Matthew wrote first, adopted by St. Mark, and Luke the Evangelist came to depend on Monday, this traditional order of the Gospels: Matthew, Mark and Luke came. Griesbach proposed a similar theory, but he saw that Luke never Mark, and thus used St. Mark Matthew and Luke together. Justice Lachmann theory in 1835, and Wilbe in 1838, has defended B. Buttler .
2. Theory primitive Gospel The Primitive Gospel Theory: Perhaps this theory came Kttor said Papias in the second century that when "the sayings of Jesus" in Hebrew, used by evangelicals mode. Some have postulated the existence of the origin of Aramaic (Hebrew) was translated into Greek used by evangelicals  each separately, this asset is missing. This theory associated with GE Lessing in 1778, and amended by J. Eichhorn in 1804. The so-called owners of this theory that the first Gospel, which took him three gospels "Q", and what was the opinion of many of them that it is closer to the Gospel of St. Mark, so some Proto-Mark advocates. Some felt in St. Epiphanius say  corresponds to this theory, which is that the Gospels (taken from the same source). However, the Saint is not intended to certain written or orally source, but is intended source of the Holy Spirit, the Grantor revelation of Evangelicals, the common source of all evangelicals.
In any event, these are all just assumptions ****d on the existence of a missing source, it Evangelicals adopted, and adult learners in the assumption of a constant adjustments in origin, so I suppose Bishop Marsh  and the presence of eight documents:
A. Hebrew original.
B. Greek translation of the original Hebrew.
C. The emergence of a copy of the original Hebrew with amendments and additions.
D. Another version of the origin of the Hebrew with another set of amendments and additions.
E. Version includes all modifications and additions which version (c) with new additions used by St. Matthew.
G. Version includes version number (d) with add-ons used by St. Luke, this version has also been used (b).
H. Hebrew version of differentiated completely contain the commandments of Mr. and exemplified his articles and registered in a non-historical used Alangillian Matthew and Luke.
The objection to this theory is the following:
A. If each new piece of information we can say that the source of the original document plus the new amendments, we can Assuming dozens of copies and not only eight copies, with no evidence of anything of this.
B. If there is a genuine source took him three Evangelical Church retained for this primary source. The Gospels were illegal had kept Fbalawly should save this source.
3. Theory stories: summed up in the presence of Greek source contains stories about the events of the pain and miracles with compilations of the sayings of Jesus, adopted by Alangillian Matthew and Luke beside dependence on the Gospel of Mark. Schleiermacher interested in this theory in 1817.
4. theory of oral tradition, dating back to 1797 Herder, Bhsabha wire evangelicals by year oral tradition. It is noted that although most of the students not to ignore the importance of the role played by the oral tradition, but there are many analogies and accurate even in the OT to make some emphasizes reliance on written source next to the oral tradition.
5. Theory exporters, cared by Holtzmann in 1863. They are more theories prevalent, where the link between the first and second theories, she believes that Matthew and Luke adopted on the Gospel of St. Mark each of them separately, since the latter is the oldest of the Gospels, this with the presence of another source is missing contains a compilation of the words of Jesus Christ (Loggia) referred to the letter Q .
Second< the problem Gospels (Alsenobtah) Synoptic Problem
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